Kokish Letters Needed Now

 British Columbia's Kokish River Steelhead need your help to stop a large scale IPP development on the East Coast of Vancouver Island near Telegraph Cove. This project will divert 10km of salmon habitat into a intake pipe, and a further 17 surrounding streams would be impacted by its construction and operations.


Form Letter Here

News Articles

Stream Enrichment: What is it and how can I get involved?

2011 Nutrient Enrichment Program in the Fraser Valley & Lower Mainland (submitted by Dave Harper BCCF)

Project Overview

Trends of decreased ocean survival of salmonid species on the southcoast of BC has decreased escapement and subsequently reduced levels of marine-derived nutrients important for maintaining the productivity of salmonid freshwater habitats. This loss of essential aquatic nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen) has particular consequences on juvenile salmonid survival and the number of outgoing smolts since they rely on freshwater habitat for 1 to 4 years. Phosphorous and nitrogen highly limit the food available to fish in streams and rivers; they promote the growth of algae that aquatic insects feed on, which are then fed upon by fish. Faster growing or larger juveniles more successfully over-winter during major fall-winter flood events, and have been shown to have better marine survival; their survival is strongly affected by the freshwater concentrations of these key nutrients.

As part of the Greater Georgia Basin Steelhead Recovery Plan and Living Rivers Georgia Basin/Vancouver Island programs, the BC Ministry of Environment has contracted the BC Conservation Foundation to deliver the Fraser Valley/Lower Mainland Stream Enrichment Program to address freshwater habitat impacts by restoring watershed processes to increase freshwater productivity and improved juvenile salmonid survival and rearing conditions. This is a high priority project for salmonid stocks of concern and their long-term recovery and sustainability in the lower Fraser River tributaries.

The project is aimed at the conservation and recovery of wild salmonid stocks and increasing angling opportunities, with significant benefits to most other aquatic species. Work is coordinated primarily by BCCF fish biologists and technicians, with available volunteer help, such as the assistance from several local angling and stewardship groups. Currently this program has relied on the assistance and efforts of volunteers from a wide variety of backgrounds and this year’s program looks to be no different.

Steelhead fry weight comparision

This project will continue in 2011 in the Lower Mainland and Fraser Valley with the instream application of an innovative product, Crystal Green® fertilizer. Crystal Green® is a slow-release solid fertilizer that is recovered from recycled wastewater. The first ever full-scale instream application of the fertilizer was performed in 5 streams in 2009. In 2010 six streams were fertilized and will again be replicated in 2011. Water chemistry and algal growth monitoring during the summer growing season and fish data collected in the fall revealed good results in 2009 and 2010 with this innovative fertilizer.

If you're interested in participating in future stream enrichment volunteer opportunities in the lower mainland, please contact Dave Harper, BC Conservation Foundation

Squamish River Cleanup a Great Success

On April 22nd, Steelhead Society of BC Director Matt Joyce and SFU student Gillian Steele organized a cleanup of the Squamish, Cheakamus and Mamquam rivers.  The cleanup was attended by 34 volunteers including anglers, kayakers, SFU students and Seymour Salmonid Society volunteers.  SSBC Directors Ralph Kroning and Carlo Ng were also in attendance. 


An estimated 1-2 tonnes of garbage including household appliances and furniture, construction waste, car parts as well as two rusted 45 gallon drums half full of oil in close proximity to the Cheakamus were removed from the shoreline and adjacent forest of these steelhead and salmon bearing streams. 


Squamish District waived tipping fees at the District landfill, Sunwolf Outdoor Centre ( offered the use of their parking lot as a staging area as well providing a discounted menu at Fergies' Cafe for volunteers following the cleanup and Starbucks provided complimentary coffee. 


Clint Goyette of Valley Fishing Guides ( and Brian Niska of Whistler Fly Fishing ( helped locate sites for the cleanup, and Clint Goyette also participated in the cleanup effort. 














Reduced recruitment performance in natural populations of anadromous salmonids associated with hatchery-reared fish M.W. Chilcote, K.W. Goodson, and M.R. Falcy

Abstract: We found a negative relationship between the reproductive performance in natural, anadromous populations of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), coho salmon (O. kisutch), and Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and the propor- tion of hatchery fish in the spawning population. We used intrinsic productivity as estimated from fitting a variety of re- cruitment models to abundance data for each population as our indicator of reproductive performance. The magnitude of this negative relationship is such that we predict the recruitment performance for a population composed entirely of hatch- ery fish would be 0.128 of that for a population composed entirely of wild fish. The effect of hatchery fish on reproductive performance was the same among all three species. Further, the impact of hatchery fish from ‘‘wild type’’ hatchery brood- stocks was no less adverse than hatchery fish from traditional, domesticated broodstocks. We also found no support for the hypothesis that a population’s reproductive performance was affected by the length of exposure to hatchery fish. In most cases, measures that minimize the interactions between wild and hatchery fish will be the best long-term conservation strategy for wild populations.

 To read the entire study please download the PDF.

Writing letters... that count.

Writing letters...that count.
A helpful guide courtesy of the Steelhead Society of B.C.

Drafted by the South Island Branch, June 1992.
Revised by Steelhead Society editorial committee, November 1994.
Second printing, February 1995.
Third Printing, February 1996 sponsored by BC Wild.

This Publication sponsored by the Campbell River Branch of the Steelhead Society of B.C.
Photos by Dave Hadden. (Not included in the online guide).

Why Bother?

Writing Letters is an effective way of influencing politics and policies. As a general rule, politicians and bureaucrats credit every letter they receive as representing the thoughts and feelings of 500 to 1000 taxpayers who simply didn’t bother to report their concerns. That makes each letter (your letter) up to a thousand times more important than most people realize. In a very real yet paradoxical sense, other people’s laziness or reluctance to write makes the letter writer extremely influential.

Clearly, people have influence, and do count—if and when they write letters. And that means that you maximize your influence, your worth, by writing letters.

Some general rules

You should write an individual, independent letter. Form letters or photocopied letters earn little respect. (Politicians and bureaucrats quickly recognize form letters handed out at shopping malls.) Letters are even more effective than petitions. And that’s because letters require more time than is required to sign a petition, and because letter writers are acknowledged to be more concerned than most and to have better-than-average understanding of the issue.

Try to keep your letters as neat and error-free as possible. But don’t not write simply because you believe your letter must be perfect. There’s no such thing as a perfect letter. It’s also wise to have someone else—your spouse, mother, friend—read your letter for accuracy and tone.

For maximum effect, the letter should be personal. It should also be polite, specific, brief, and as far as possible, non-partisan. It is okay to say that you voted for Mr. X or Ms. Y in the last election, but the effect is spoilt if you call them liars, cheats, and vandals, whom you will never vote for again in a hundred years.

Secretaries have a habit of throwing such name-calling letters into the wastepaper basket before politicians even see them. Secretaries correctly conclude that such letters put their bosses in bad temper, which can cause trouble for office staff. And politicians who do happen to see name-calling letters often conclude that nothing can be gained trying to win back the letter writer’s support; instead, they might as well do the opposite—and please those on the other side.

What to say:

There are two basic types of letter:

letters which support or oppose,
letters which urge action on significant issues.

The first are simpler and easier to compose. For example, you might write in support of a Society letter or resolution. It might go as follows:

Dear Minister,

I am writing to let you know I fully support the Steelhead Society’s resolution calling for 90-metre green strips along Class 1 and Class 2 streams. The South Vancouver Island Chapter wrote to you about that issue on 10 June, 1992.

Note that you have clearly identified the issue and support of it. You might then go on to establish your qualifications for claiming to represent an informed opinion, or to personalize your support by saying something along the following lines:

I have lived on Vancouver Island since the age of 16, and I have 20 years experience working in the woods. I have fished for Steelhead on Vancouver Island streams for at least 10 of those years.

And now for the opinion:

I can assure you, Ms. Or Mr.____, that I have observed steadily declining wild steelhead stocks during that period. Some stocks have virtually disappeared.

Finally, the request:

I urge you, in your role of Minister of Forests, to take action on this matter. We have a responsibility to our children to make sure that the genetic integrity of this great fish is not destroyed forever.

A little (don’t overdo it) flattery can be helpful. For instance you might say:

When I heard you speak about the need to protect our environment at our community centre during the election, I was impressed by your sincerity and determination to take action. I know that you will wish to learn about the critical situation that steelhead face today.


Since your party supported a reduction of organochlorines, I’m sure you will want to know about a problem with the water quality of…

Additional points

Letters which either support or oppose should be brief; long endorsements or criticisms lose impact, and can become confusing. For the other letter—the “significant issue” letter—you are much more on your own. Remember these rules, however:

Being brief

Being brief means dealing with one issue at a time. Two-page letters are less likely to be carefully or fully read. The reader is more inclined to merely scan, to determine the letter’s subject or tone in order to respond with a standard computer reply. A one-page letter is almost certain to be read in its entirety.

Being specific

Being specific means choosing one point and sticking to it. End with a clear and realistic request. There should be absolutely no ambiguity. You may wish to conclude:

My experience on this matter has convinced me that a 10-metre green strip is not adequate. As a minimum, I urge you to adopt the 90-metre green strip for all Class 1 and Class 2 streams in our area.

Be wary of tone, and how you phrase requests and criticism. It’s better to say, “Perhaps you’ve received bad advice on…,” than to say, “You obviously don’t know what you’re talking about.”

To whom should you write?


Cabinet ministers usually pass letters on to bureaucrats for draft replies—but that spreads the message widely in the ministry or department, so it’s generally worth starting at the top. Also, send a copy of the letter to your own MLA or MP, but don’t just send it on its own. You can add a covering letter, but it is easier to hand-write a few words yourself across the top. You might be be prompted to scribble:

During the election you promised to kick backsides in Victoria. Do it!

But it is better to write something along these lines:

As you are my MLA, I would be grateful if you would take up this matter with the Minister and let me know what he says. If your secretary will give me a call at 555-5555, we can arrange a meeting early next month to discuss it.

This is an effective way to indicate that you want action, not a brush-off, nor a form-letter reply. Note that you have also given a deadline, albeit not one so demanding in tone or time frame as to be brushed aside. You can always beg off the meeting when the secretary phones; you may be going on holiday next month and not really want it. But your MLA doesn’t know that.

If there is a chance of your going to the office to complain of neglect—or worse,
going to the press or publicly documenting her or his lack of interest on a serious environmental issue—he or she is far more likely to put the heat on the minister for some action.

The minister’s secretary now has cause for concern, especially if the minister does nothing. Your letter is now on top of the piles of two secretaries!


It isn’t only politicians who need stroking and advice. Sometimes it pays to write directly to those in charge of a particular area. A letter directly to officials and managers shows that you understand that they are important and influential—and that you know who they are. But be sure to copy your letter to the minister involved. (See Copying, below.)


Letters written directly to newspapers are unlikely to be published unless they are topical, precise, and concise. To be deemed topical, your letter must normally be a reaction to a news item or opinion piece published one or two days earlier. That means you must act quickly, that you must write while the issue is still hot—while it’s news, not history. Study the “style” of the Letters to the Editor section of your newspaper. Notice that each letter focuses on a single topic. And fight the temptation to say too much. By counting the words in a number of the published letters, you’ll discover how short most of them are. And remember, include your address and phone (and fax) number.

Forms of address

Ministers are called “Honourable”, a polite (if not always accurate) description. The salutation for a letter to a provincial minister is thus:
Hon. John Doe, M.L.A.
Minister of…

A letter to a federal minister is slightly different: The letters P.C. are added after the letters M.P. This stands for “Privy Council,” an archaic term, but one about which ministers are often vain. So the letter goes:

Hon. Jane Doe, M.P., P.C.
Minister of…

In both cases the letter starts:

Dear Minister:


Dear Mr. or Ms. Doe:

In the case of the Prime Minister or Premier, it is:

Dear Prime Minister:


Dear Premier:


To make things easy, all elected provincial politicians have one address, and all elected federal politicians have another.

The federal address is:

Mr. or Ms. X., M.P.
House of Commons
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0A6

The provincial address is:

Ms. Or Mr. Y., M.L.A.
Parliament Buildings
Victoria, B.C.
V8V 1X4


No stamp is needed for letters to members of Parliament in Ottawa. Letters to members of the Legislature in Victoria require regular postage. You can also fax letters. Not only can faxes be used to demonstrate vigilance and promptness—traits noticed by wise politicians and bureaucrats—but faxes save you a stamp.

If you wish, you can fax and mail the same letter helping to ensure it stays on top of the pile. You can obtain government addresses and fax numbers by calling Inquiry B.C. at (604) 660-2421.

“Copying” your valuable letters

Your letter’s effect (and hence the return on your effort) is greatly enhanced by sending copies to others of influence. This simple practice helps ensure that your letter is taken seriously, and that’s because the person, ministry, or agency to whom you send it knows that others also know your views. Additionally, you enlist allies through your “copied” letters, and having allies helps guarantee action. The convention is to use “c.” after your signature. After the “c.” you list the names of the people to whom you have sent copies of your letter. For example, following your signature, your letter might look like this:

c.: Steelhead Society of British Columbia
Hon. Glen Clark, Premier
Mark Hume, Senior Reporter, Vancouver Sun

If you write to a politician or a bureaucrat about anything to do with steelhead, be sure to send a copy to the Steelhead Society. It’s surprising how many Society members and other steelheaders neglect to do so. The Steelhead Society—and other groups concerned about our fisheries—can be more effective when they know what sorts of letter the politicians and bureaucrats are receiving.

Letters are commonly copied to members of the press, either those known to write about environmental issues, or directly to an editor, radio, or television broadcaster. Community newspapers are hungry for such letters—and community papers are widely read. Be prepared, however, to defend your position on controversial topics. (You must, of course, include your address and phone number with any letter to the editor.)

It is courteous to copy a letter to people mentioned in your letter. Letters to a minister should also be copied to the Premier and, usually, to other cabinet ministers. Frequent letter writers soon develop a standard copy list. For example, a letter to the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, criticizing the farming of exotic Atlantic salmon, is more effective if copied to the Minister of Environment, the provincial Fisheries Director, your local MLA and MP, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, the official opposition critic, the press, and other environmental groups.

Wanted: Trees - Dead or Alive

REWARD: Steelhead
Scott Kirkpatrick

An outwardly migrating wild steelhead smolt is the supreme indicator of a healthy watershed.
(Photo by Dave Hadden)

To prepare for winter hibernation, black and grizzly bears feed on salmon carcasses. This phenomenon has been researched extensively, and is widely acclaimed as an integral part of the ecosystem of the Pacific Coast rain forests. If a gluttony of salmon carcasses and an ensuing deep sleep are characteristics that can be used to define a bear, then many species of ‘bears’ are being overlooked.

The Wild Pacific Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) is such a species. Winter is a time when a river’s ecosystem often can not produce enough invertebrates alone to sustain juvenile steelhead, considering such sustenance would come at considerable cost. Accordingly, steelhead juveniles spend much of the fall season aggressively bulking up fat reserves in preparation for the months to come. The metabolism of steelhead drops dramatically during the winter months, as a result of encountering icy water temperatures. Like bears, these cold-blooded fish are able to survive by drawing energy from fat reserves that have been augmented by, among other things, salmon carcasses. Surviving the winter is a significant obstacle juvenile steelhead face. As is often said, “’Almost only’ counts in horseshoes and hand grenades”, and there are no compromises in this life or death situation.

Chehalis River, November ; a perfect example of functioning large woody debris: This log has created a resting pool below, a spawning tail out above, and has become a smorgasboard for juvenile steelhead and the food chain after it was caked in Chum salmon carcasses. (Photo by Scott Kirkpatrick)

Trees, dead or alive, are almost as important to juvenile steelhead survival as water. A treed riparian habitat is a large contributor of pieces of woody debris to the river. Over the course of floods and receding river levels, this debris often settles itself into debris traps in the shallow sections of rivers. The current then forces itself around these dead pieces of wood, and creates pools in which juvenile steelhead can rest and places for them to hide from predators (also known as habitat complexity). Additionally, these new pools serve as areas that settle out (“recruit”) smaller pieces of gravel that are easier for female steelhead to move with their tails. Even better, these debris traps also “pitchfork,” “hang out to dry,” or catch salmon carcasses and hold them there over the course of the winter floods, giving the juvenile steelhead an extended feeding window and retaining a nutrient source into the spring.

Forests, especially old-growth forests, serve as huge reservoirs with their ability to store large amounts of rain water, purifying and slowly releasing it back into the river. The effect…stable river levels that do not see the extreme fluctuations in flow which can cause juveniles seeking refuge to be stranded. With moderated rivers, any woody debris that does end up in the stream doesn’t get washed out right away, or end up “high and dry” up on the bank where it is of little use in creating pool habitat, subsequent spawning habitat, and collecting carcasses.

“Trees, dead or alive, are almost as important to juvenile steelhead survival as water.”

These logs have dissipated the current which has resulted in a resting area for migrating adults and feeding juveniles. (Photo by Scott Kirkpatrick)

In a relatively recent article titled “Salmon Survival Rates Triple When Salmon Carcasses Are Left,” by Ed Hunt in the October/November 1997 Edition of Salmon-Trout-Steelheader, Scientist Robert Bilby noted that:

“…in a steelhead’s first year of life, 85 percent of stomach contents were spawner derived. After one year, egg and carcass material made up 95 percent of stomach content.”

The article also talked about a test that was performed:

“On Forks Creek, 400 carcasses were added to 5 meters of stream. They actually tethered the carcasses to make sure they stayed in one place. The results were clear. Not only did young Coho density increase after carcasses were deposited compared to other sites, but steelhead moved in very rapidly after the carcasses were placed in the river, and disappeared after they were gone. The weight of Coho also increased wherever the carcasses were placed as did the amount of fat for Coho and steelhead in the area.”

Without woody debris traps in rivers, many rivers would be too shallow and fast to support anything other than what may be considered by biologists to be functionally extinct populations. The gravel would be mainly large cobblestones too large for all but the largest of female steelhead to move with their tails to create suitable redd sites. There would be few resting areas for juveniles and little habitat complexity. All debris, and any drifting carcasses, would get washed out of the stream with any rise in river levels.

With these factors in mind, it should be obvious that logging watersheds in an irresponsible manner will lead to the eventual extinction of some salmon races, especially steelhead.